The labrum is a soft tissue structure located in the socket-shaped joint in your shoulder bone, that along with other structures helps to maintain shoulder stability. Repetitive motion and injuries can tear the labrum, often causing pain.
The glenoid is the shallow, socket-like opening of the shoulder where the labrum is located, and shoulder labrum tears can happen anywhere around the glenoid socket. These are different types of labrum tears described:
SLAP tears: When the tear is above the middle of the glenoid, it’s called a SLAP tear. The acronym SLAP stands for Superior (topmost) Labral tear from Anterior (front) to Posterior (back). This kind of labrum tear is common among tennis players, baseball players, and anyone who uses a lot of overhead arm motions.
Bankart tear: Occurs when the damage is to the lower anterior quadrant of the glenoid socket. These types of tears are more common in younger people with dislocated shoulders.
Osseous Bankart tear: Occurs when the damage is to the lower anterior quadrant of the glenoid socket involving the labrum and an osseous fragment from the edge of the socket.
Perthes lesion: a variation of the Bankart lesion, where the scapula periosteum is lifted and stripped medially with the detached anterior labrum.
ALPSA (anterior labral periosteal sleeve avulsion) lesion: an injury to the front of the shoulder associated with shoulder dislocation.
Posterior labrum tear: These are rare and only makeup 5 to 10% of all shoulder injuries. Posterior labral tears can be caused by injuries to the back of the shoulder joint.
Reverse Bankhart tear: Occurs when the damage is to the lower posterior quadrant of the glenoid socket. These types of tears are more common in younger people with dislocated shoulders.
Kim lesion: a concealed tear at the posterior glenoid chondrolabral junction accompanied by a concealed partial detachment of the deeper portion of the labrum from the glenoid rim.